Disney’s affect on the media; the American dream.


Disney characters.Ramos,G. (2015).

He was a 20th century giant and captured the hearts of all with unforgettable stories and fairy tales.Walter Elias Disney is the man we can thank for the development of mass media, which he used as a tool to create and produce films that taught useful life lessons as well as making the happiness of all around the world his priority.


Walt was born in Chicago in 1901, he moved from the city but did eventually head back there later in life to study art. Johnson (n.d.). points out that Walt made unique contributions to mass media in the 1920s by making good use of the then limited technology to create short animated films.Not long after the release of these Walt began working on full length animated films.The characters created and the audience they appealed to differed from other animators which made Walt’s work unique. From the creation of his full length animated films a new family market was reached.


Mickey Mouse in his debut as steam boat Willie, 1928. Crockett,Z. (2015).

Disney corporations impeccable reputation was first established by the release of Snow White and the seven dwarves in 1937. The original plan Walt had for the film was a budget of $250,000 and to have it finished within 18 months, however it took 5 years to make and cost 1.7 million,by the 1960s the film had made 22 million dollars.Disney films appeal to everyone because they are timeless, Johnson (n.d.). states that even now the release of his earliest movies Snow White and Fantasia (1940) are popular and profitable.During this time full length films became the game to beat people saw how important it was to come up with something new as this was the way to beat what was already in mainstream media states Guestauthor (2011). Walt set the bar for future animators.


Walt on set. DeCaro, D.(2011).

In 1954 the television channel ABC were looking to increase ratings and encouraged him to produce one hour shows. Being the innovator and pioneer that he was Walt did just that and produced shows such as The Mickey Mouse Club House  and Wonderful world of color.


It was on television that Walt represented himself as the icon of mainstream conservative American values, he was wholesome and looked back to the the past with nostalgia and to the future with hope.He provided a lot of post war Americans with a sense of serenity and ease after the turmoil of WW2.These shows were incredibly successful and promoted Disneyland or a Disney movie, the money made from these shows went to the development of his next idea; theme parks.


Disneyland.Lee, R. (2015).


The concept of the fairy tale came to life with the opening of t


Walt showing county officials Disneyland plans. Wikipedia. (2016).

he theme park Disneyland in Anaheim, California, July 17th 1955. (The only one built under the direct supervision of Walt himself). Disneyland was a fantasy land where Disney characters, restaurants and rides were incorporated. The biggest appeal it had was that you visited the theme park for a week due to the size of it which was so different from anything else at the time.Although Walt aimed his films at the family market, they appealed to many. 240 million people have seen a Disney film and 800 million have read a Disney comic or magazine.The great works of Walt Disney didn’t only affect the developments of new technology in film and TV but also reflected in how people thought by opening up a lot of doors to great opportunities to those who came after him.


Admit 1.Reddit.com. (n.d.).


He took the world by storm and changed family entertainment forever.He was the first to make full length animated films and did so with critical acclaim and financial success. Not many films that are 30-40 years old can play nationwide in cinemas or sell thousands of copies, Walts works continue 60 years later with Oscar nominated films such as Beauty and the Beast or  Aladdin   and of recently The Junglebook. Click here to see a list of future Disney live action remakes to come!


Anderson, E. (n.d.). Walt Disney’s impact on entertainment. Retrieved from http://entertainmentguide.local.com/walt-disneys-impact-entertainment-7681.html

Crockett,Z. (2015). How Mickey Mouse evades the public domain. Retrieved from http://priceonomics.com/how-mickey-mouse-evades-the-public-domain/

Crowley,C.  (2011). Walt Disney: An American icon. https://pages.shanti.virginia.edu/disneysvisionforamerica/walt-disney-innovater-public-figure/

DeCaro,D. (2011). The ABC-TV deal. Retrieved from http://davelandblog.blogspot.co.nz/2011/12/abc-tv-deal.html

Golden oldies. (2009). Old Mickey Mouse clubhouse intro 1960. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4C_lUy58Rw

Guestauthor. (2011). Walt Disney-How one man changed the world of media. Retrieved from http://www.tech2date.com/walt-disney-how-one-man-changed-the-world-of-media.html


Johnson, P. (1993) Walt Disney and his influence on the mass media. Retrieved from http://www.lib.niu.edu/1993/ihy930354.html

Lee, R. (2015). Small time kid- Disneyland.[weblog post] Retrieved from http://midlifecrisishawaii.com/memories/small-kid-time-disneyland

Ramos, G. (2015). Disney vs Pixar2-Which studio makes the better films

Reddit.com.(n.d.). Disney. Retrieved from https://www.reddit.com/r/disney/comments/22cdxb/the_first_disneyland_admission_ticket_ever_sold/

Whatculture.com. (n.d.). 15 live action remakes Disney are currently developing. Retrieved from http://whatculture.com/film/15-live-action-remakes-disney-are-currently-developing

Wikipedia contributors. (2016). Disneyland. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:CiteThisPage&page=Disneyland&id=719238622


Film and music go together like peanut butter and jelly.

Music has been a part of film since the beginning of motion pictures. Buchanan (1974) states that music originally had a practical use; to keep the audience from talking and to dull the sound of the 9-at-9-syria-credit-rating-croke-park-laya-healthcare-psni-eurovision-390x285noisy projector. Music is used in film to convey specific emotions and to put the viewer into a certain mindset open to the creators intent. Music is amongst the most vital and powerful tools a film maker can use. Hoffman (2011) speaks about the different functions of music in film.Imagine your most favorite film with out its stirring music score, without music films are less exciting and inspiring, take a look at these 13 movie scenes that have had their accompanying music removed, they all seem kind of weird and awkward to me. If you were turn the sound down while watching a horror film you will most likely not feel scared at all.

Music in film impacts the audience, it allows an emotional connection to characters and their situation, it reinforces the film makers story. A great piece of music can make or break a film, Bell (2010) says its beneficial for film makers to experiment with pieces of music but not to over think it. In Steven Spielberg’s film Jaws, John Williams composed only 3 notes to create  suspense, proving that simple is sometimes best.Most only think of films as a visual experience which of course they are but they are also something we experience with our ears! In general films are fantasy and fantasies defy logic and reality, they work with the imagination.Music affects us on an unconscious level before we have time to even think about it.filmmusic

Digetic sound

One of two types of sound in film; digetic sound comes from the “narrative sphere” of the story, the characters can hear it, play it and manipulate it. An example of digetic sound in a film is when someone enters a club and the music is pumping, or when a character turns on a radio.

Non digetic sound

Basically the opposite of digetic sound,this sound isn’t heard by the characters of the film,its exclusively used for the audience to listen to. It is used in a scene to trigger emotional reactions, for example in a horror film tensional music, piano or orchestra are used to emphasize the scene and add more buildup to “jumpy” moments.

Ransome (2014) uses composer Stephen Jabolonsky’s work on Transformers as an example of a fantastic musical score and that it was applied in the right scenes by the director to change tone and mood. “The score is used in harmony with the cinematography to capture each moment.”

Music has the power to make us feel all kinds of things, it makes us feel as though we are there in the moment with the characters. Movies are defined by music in an immense way, sometime underestimated and unappreciated, treated like just a background noise when its much more than that. Music and film share an inseparable bond and they rely on each other to achieve greatness.

Click here to see the top 25 Oscar winning film scores of all time.


 Bell, J. (2010). Music makes movies. Retrieved from http://www.centerdigitaled.com/artsandhumanities/Music-Makes-Movies.html

Donohue, A. (2013). The 9 at 9: Saturday. Retrieved from http://www.thejournal.ie/9-at-9-28-806378-Feb2013/

Evans, E. (2014). Film music scenes without music. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLtQmhuso-M7OuGEhd8lCutgx2auH8Ll7K

Fiscoff, S. (n.d.). The evolution of music in film and its psychological impact on audiences. Retrieved from http://web.calstatela.edu/faculty/abloom/tvf454/5filmmusic.pdf

Hoffman, R. (2011).What is the function of film music? Retrieved from  http://www.robin-hoffmann.com/tutorials/guide-to-working-with-a-film-composer/12-what-is-the-function-of-film-music/

Horror task media A2. (2012). Non digetic sound ideas. [weblog post] Retrieved from http://daniamedia.blogspot.co.nz/2012/08/non-diegetic-sound-ideas.html

Mccarthy, D. (2013). How to choose the perfect soundtrack. Retrieved from http://www.raindance.org/how-to-choose-the-perfect-soundtrack/

Patches, M, Tapley. K. (2014). The 25 best Oscar winning film scores of all time. Retrieved from http://www.hitfix.com/in-contention/star-wars-ben-hur-lord-of-the-rings-the-25-best-oscar-winning-film-scores-of-all-time

Ransome, A. (2014). How important is music in defining movies? Retrieved from http://moviepilot.com/posts/1436093

Brainwashed by gender roles

What is a gender stereotype? Inaccurate generalizations about the role of each gender.

The ugly truth.

In television and movies women tend to have less significant roles than men, rather than being main characters they are often portrayed as wives or mothers. When they are given a lead role they are cast as one extreme or another; a wholesome saint like figure or a malevolent, hyper sexual figure.The same inequality is shown in children’s movies , among the top 101 grossing G rated movies released between 1990 and 2005 three out of every four characters were male and only seven of these films were close to having a balanced cast of characters.

Gender stereotyping through commercials is particularly effective as they are always


Gucci guilty. Dani102390. (2012).

targeting a certain social group, they support gender based stereotypes for example advertisements that promote cooking or cleaning are almost always acted by women. During men’s adverts women also appear a lot , used by the advertisers as a tool to boost the male ego about a new watch or to flirt with him whilst being seduced by his new cologne.The same can be said with women’s perfume adverts where the women in the advert is almost always barely clad or posing seductively which forces us to think selling sex or scent? 

Women are more often than not depicted in dehumanizing or oppressive ways particularly in music videos. boundless.com gives an example of this with the song P.I.M.P by 50 cent, Snoop Dogg and G Unit, in this video women are objectified and at the risk of sounding like a feminist; only existing to serve men.They wear little clothing and are walked around on leashes.


Miss Dior. Vesa,L. (2012)

Video games such as grand theft auto also promote this degrading objectification of women, where players can pick up prostitutes on the side of the road. This illustration from weebly.com illustrates the characteristics that society typically expect men and women to display.


Gender stereotypes. Weebly.com. (n.d.).

4 Categories of gender stereotypes.

PERSONALITY TRAITS: Women are expected to be weak, graceful, emotional,sensitive,passive, sexually submissive and quiet. Men are expected to be non-emotional, active,self confident, aggressive and independent.

DOMESTIC BEHAVIORS: Women mind the children, cook and do the housework.Men only do household repairs, the cant cook or care for their children and they tell their wives what to do.

OCCUPATIONS:Women are meant to have ‘clean,ladylike’ jobs such as nurses, secretaries and librarians, they are to make less money than men and are hardly recognized as politicians or presidential candidates.Men should make more than women and have ‘manly’ jobs like being a mechanic, construction worker or engineering.

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:Generally speaking women are expected to be short, small and delicate almost a vulnerable look about them whilst men need to be tall, macho with broad shoulders.

Female gender stereotypes always play on the notion of women’s inequality to men and male gender stereotypes portray that if a man is not acting in an acceptable ‘manly’ way he is not worthy if his ‘superior’ role.This puts a great deal of pressure on BOTH genders to act a certain way.

These stereotypes are affecting children as well, especially at a younger and younger age canadian womens health network points out that a main component of the female gender stereotyping is that women are to be objectified, this may then lead to hypersexualization in young girls, teaching them from a small age to conform to a particular way of acting; a a passive role whose main source of power is appearance.


Model ,Thylane Blondeau. Urban look. (n.d.).

The Cannes Lion festival has created a new award that recognizes advertising that challenges gender norms, click here to see some of the best examples.

Despite female leads recently breaking records with films such as Divergent and Hunger games,the rising number of stay at home dads gender stereotyping has not been overcome, traditional gender stereotyping is still perpetuated by the mass media. Groups are portrayed in an unrealistic way so as to implement a certain image in ones head and to normalize discriminating behavior.


 Arrow, M Exon, M. (2015). Eight adds that shatter tired gender stereotypes. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/media-network/2015/may/26/eight-ads-shatter-gender-stereotypes

Boundless.com. (n.d.). Gender messages in the media. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/textbooks/boundless-sociology-textbook/socialization-4/gender-socialization-47/gender-messages-in-mass-media-297-1188/

Canadian women’s health network. (2012). Hypersexualization of young girls: what are the issues, should we be worried? Retrieved from http://www.cwhn.ca/en/hypersexualizationprimer2

Dani102390. (2012). Introduction to media criticism. Retrieved from https://dani102390.wordpress.com/2012/06/10/blog-2/

National at home dad ne work. (n.d.). Statistics on stay at home dads. Retrieved from http://athomedad.org/media-resources/statistics/

Nobullying.com. (2015). Gender stereotypes: definition, examples and analysis. Retrieved from http://nobullying.com/gender-stereotypes/

Reelgirl. (2011).12 kid’s movies of 2011 titled for male star 1 for female star. [weblog post] Retrieved from http://reelgirl.com/2011/11/12-kids-movies-of-2011-titled-for-male-star-1-titled-for-female-star/

Urban look, (n.d.). Thylane Blondeau. Retrieved from http://urbanlookbeta.blogspot.co.nz/2011/10/thylane-blondeau.html

Vesa, L. (2012). A sniff into the perfume industry. Retrieved from https://wiseyouup.wordpress.com/category/consumer-insight/

Weebly.com. (n.d.). Media portrayal of gender stereotypes. Retrieved from http://genderspectrum.weebly.com/media-portrayal-of-gender-stereotypes.html

WordPress.com. (2007).  Ascent of corruption. Retrieved from https://lgergen.wordpress.com/


The portrayal of lesbians in the media

The first thing that comes to most peoples minds when hearing the word lesbian is either butch/masculine or a  sex crazed goddess,many people think they can tell if someone is gay by the way they look, dress or behave and this is how many misconceptions occur.Popular media plays a significant role in perpetuating some common stereotypes associated with gays and lesbians.


Meme. Mkiley, (2014).

Typically in TV/film lesbians fall into two categories;super feminine (male fantasy) or super masculine (stone butch) there is no room for a lesbian that would fall in between these two categories, however this type does exist, and Brown,(2015) sates this is the type that wears a bow tie and a skirt at the same time, has short hair but also wears makeup.For example the show The L Word portrays lesbians lives as drama filled, it shows a specific type of lesbian (the male fantasy version) these characters are upper class, feminine, hypersexualised and just to put it simply; really damn hot. Some other shows that portray lesbians in this light are awkwardglee, faking it and pretty little liars . Brown, (2015) states that the issue isn’t in the portrayal of femme lesbians, she says its great if girls can look up to theses characters, “the real issue is that if I or countless other girls turn on a TV we would never see anyone who looks like us” So if lesbians don’t consider themselves the super feminine type then where do they fit? The masculine category of course! not pleasing to men, disgusting and wrong, these women are not attractive and cannot be sexualised, they are undesirable and aggressive (or so the media portrays them as). TV and film such as pitch perfect, wentworth, orange is the new black  clueless all portray lesbians in a butch, violent or aggressive manner.


Wentworth.Atwell, (2013).

Other lesbians do appear on some of these shows but of course only in the femme light for example on the show Wentworth Franky Doyle is a butch tough lesbian whose girlfriend is a pretty (mans fantasy) lesbian, Franky takes the role of the male in their relationship.

A major stereotype the media places upon lesbians is that the sex is totally hot and made for dudes, an example of this is in the film blue is the warmest color , this is a film i watched a few years ago and really enjoyed, not because of the lesbian sex but for the growth, loss and self discovery each character undergoes.Anyway a lot of critics had issues with how the sex was depicted in the film, Reese, (2015) states that the sex scene was described as a “gratuitous 10 minute long pornographic-for-the-straight-male-gaze lesbian sex that a 17 year old boy choreographed”.


Blue is the warmest color.Jones, (2013).

A study carried out by the UK film council finds that gays/lesbians are too frequently stereotyped or shown in a negative light.Out of the 1,705 people that were surveyed, 70% they think films tend to focus on gay people having problems rather than being every day people. 63% said that gay characters are too often defined by their sexual orientation.Gay, lesbian and bi sexual respondents were critical of their depiction in films, 80%said the gay characters seemed to be defined by the fact they were gay, the portrayal of lesbians was also criticized with 64% saying lesbians are shown as a male fantasy and 63% saying they are shown as sexually aggressive.


The L word. Logan, (2015).

Brown, (2015) points out that we all just want to have someone to identify with, we all just want to be seen ,everyone deserves that.People of the LGB community want to be able to turn on the TV and see someone who looks and acts like them and have their identity validated. Many lesbian couples do exhibit butch/femme dynamic but many don’t and we shouldn’t lose sight of this.


ALGBTICAL. (n.d.). Going beyond gay generalizations. Retrieved from http://www.algbtical.org/2A%20STEREOTYPES.htm

ATTN media/news/publishing. (2015). The representation of lesbians in media. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/attn/videos

Atwell, E. (2013). Teal is the new orange. Retrieved from http://www.afterellen.com/tv/195893-wentworth-recap-1-1-teal-is-the-new-orange

Brown, M. (2015). Why it’s a problem we see only two types of lesbians on TV. Retrieved from http://www.sparksummit.com/2015/01/20/why-its-a-problem-we-only-see-2-types-of-lesbians-on-tv-and-why-i-watch-anyway/

Geen, J. (2011). Study says gays and lesbians are still stereotyped in films. Retrieved from http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2011/03/29/study-says-gays-and-lesbians-are-still-stereotyped-in-films/

Jones,M,K. (2013). Review: Blue is the warmest color. Retrieved from http://www.filmcomment.com/article/review-blue-is-the-warmest-color-abdellatif-kechiche/

Logan,M (2014).Wired binge watching guide: The L word. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2015/07/binge-guide-l-word/

Mkiley. (2014). Cultural politics of sport. [weblog post] Retrieved from https://sportcultures.wordpress.com/2014/01/16/field-hockey-wow-you-must-be-really-tough/

Reese, A. (2015). 7 Offensive lesbian stereotypes that always end up in movies. Retrieved from http://www.gurl.com/2015/08/04/movies-with-lazy-lesbian-stereotypes/#2


Cutting the cord

We can basically do everything on the


Online streaming sites. Skehoe (2012).

internet in today’s society,banking,shopping, speaking to friends through messages or video and watching TV shows/movies. Online viewing has soared,particularly since 2007 with Netflix changing from a DVD mail rental service to an online streaming service.I don’t watch much television myself but on the odd occasion I do all I see is crap! things like NZ family feud and this particularly cringe worthy one called You’re back in the room, a game show where contestants are “hypnotized”. Plenty of households have Sky Television (cable) which in fairness does have some better shows than the other free channels, however most people prefer to binge watch these shows as entire series on sites such as hulu , netflix and lovefilm. One factor that makes these sites so popular is that some of them provide their own shows that aren’t available on ordinary television and they’re dam good ones too, such as Mad dog, House of cards and Orange is the new black. So with all this being said will Sky television (cable) soon follow the bunny ears into the basement of dead technology, will online TV just become the norm?


Smashed television.Dombrowski (2014).

Wohlsen (2014) states that online TV is in more and more homes and isn’t a “geeky novelty” anymore, its just what TV looks like now.A year long report was carried out by Adobe in the USA where online video views and logins were tracked. It was discovered that the total TV viewing over the internet had grown by 388% in mid 2014 compared to the same time a year earlier and the numbers of viewers more than doubled growing 146% year over year.


Cord cutting. Slaybaugh (2016).


There are a number of factors contributing to the rise of online viewing like no ads being played and of course being able to view these shows wherever, whenever (on-demand) and same day as the U.S. Troutman (2015) speaks about 3 major contributing factors.

Blodget (2012) points out that most households don’t watch TV shows when they are broadcast anymore with the exception being live sports, he says that the same thing that happened to the newspaper business with the rise of the internet is going to also happen to TV business. TV content is is consumed but we don’t need to settle in front of the box and watch “whats on” our viewing habits are changing, we no longer have to wait an entire week to see the next episode of our favorite shows, instead we can see it all at once at a moments notice. We are gorging ourselves silly and are becoming an insatiable army of Augustus Gloops states Smith (2014) I myself am a testimony to this, I hardly came out of the house whilst watching Breaking Bad, one more episode, oh just one more, and one more again I would tell myself till I had finished all 5 seasons. A survey from Nielsen showed that the percent of people worldwide who watched TV at least once a month dropped from 90% to 83% and the percentage of people who watch a video on a computer once a month is now higher than the percentage that watch TV.


Graph. Richter (2015).


According to Zambelli (2014) broadcasters are likely to increasingly rely on live news and sports to draw in audiences,whether this is enough to justify the costs of distributing entire linear channels who knows? Some say it might be best for TV broadcasters to focus on content development and original programming and to stay out of the distribution business altogether.

Cord cutters are not yet the majority but give it another 10 years or so and the generation of children being born now wont even know what channel surfing is, it will be as foreign to them as dial up internet is to us today.


 Blodget, H (2012). Don’t mean to be alarmist, but the TV business may be starting to collapse. Retrieved from.http://www.businessinsider.com.au/tv-business-collapse-2012-6?r=US&IR=T

Dombrowski,Q (2014).Flickr. Retrieved https://www.flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/15461107907

Hill, S (2016). Is TV dead? Retrieved from.  http://www.squamishchief.com/lifestyles/is-tv-dead-1.2164063

Lieberman,D (2013).TV viewers becoming more distracted as internet makes inroads: Study. Retrieved from http://deadline.com/2013/03/deloitte-study-tv-viewing-internet-distracted-457889/

Richter,F (2015).Netflix hits 65 million subscribers. Retrieved from  https://www.statista.com/chart/3153/netflix-subscribers/

Sekhoe (2015). AVS forums top 6 streaming media players. Retrieved from http://www.avsforum.com/forum/301-avs-forum-articles/1558546-avs-forum-s-top-6-streaming-media-players.html

Slaybaugh, S (2016). Cut it out! These 6 cable cord cutting myths just wont die. Retrieved from http://dealnews.com/features/Running-With-Scissors-7-Myths-About-Cutting-the-Cable-Cord/1023333.html

Troutman, K (2015). Top 3 reasons why the internet will kill TV. Retrieved from http://www.cheatsheet.com/business/3-reasons-the-internet-will-kill-television.html/?a=viewall

Wohlsen,M (2014). As online viewing soars, internet TV will soon be the only TV. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2014/10/online-viewing-soars-internet-tv-will-tv/

Zambelli, A (2014). Cord cutting: Beginning of the end for linear television. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/media-network/media-network-blog/2014/jul/07/cord-cutting-internet-tv-netflix



Narcissistic digi-babies

The other night whilst watching my nieces play I noticed they both stopped to stare at the


Little Mix.News beat, (2015).

TV which was on a music channel,mesmerized by British pop band Little Mix, they began to copy the dance moves (pouting,grabbing of the hair, twerking and gyrating hips) saying”this is my favorite song” my nieces are 5 and 6, one of them has already began saying to her mum she thinks she is ugly,my younger sister is 14 and sent me a snap chat today of her and her friends getting their eye brows waxed, this all got me to thinking about how the media (TV and social media in particular) influence young girls and may actually be causing them to grow up with low self esteem and  having narcissistic tendencies.



Ariana Grande.Freeth, B (2014).

Toma, (2015) says that social net working sites have been described as a haven for narcissists, kids as young as 13 can make a face book account (some even younger if they lie about their age) here they can discuss themselves and the details of their everyday lives,post pictures of themselves and attract attention in  the form of likes and comments. Studies have shown that people who score higher on the Narcissistic personality inventory questionnaire  tend to have more friends on Facebook, tag themselves more often in photos and update their statuses more frequently.


The selfie


Selfie. Jager,C (2016).


Children these days are forever  posting selfies, competing with each other on who has the best hair, best clothes, make up, nicest skin, biggest breasts,flattest tummy, nicest behind, and of most recent who ha the nicest brows and plumpest lips.

1886-1889: Vincent van Gogh paints over 30 portraits of himself,making him one of the most prolific self portraitists of all time.

2002: The first known use of the term selfie was used in an Australian forum.

2004: Flickr used it as a hashtag.

2010: The release of iPhone 4 by apple which features a front camera.

2011: Instagram updates with the use of new filters for editing and the use of hashtags.

2013: Oxford dictionary announces selfie as the international  word of the year.

Christie Bakarat speaks of how science links selfies to narcissism, addiction and low self esteem. Generally a more secure and  mature person will post selfies that are spontaneous and less staged and they will do it less often as opposed to a more insecure person who posts staged or sexualized pictures and becomes consumed by it and the comments they receive. Selfies can affect mood and damage self esteem, if a young girl posts a picture of herself posing provacativley and then receives an influx of likes, that’s false self esteem for that kid.According to research done, 1 in 4 girls delete a photo if it does not receive enough likes and 8 out of 10 women encounter negativity on social media that affects their self esteem.In an effort to change the way social media affects the self esteem of women around the world,Dove launched a  self esteem project  An online survey also revealed that girls aged 13 to 23 spend 1 hour 24 minutes prepping for selfies each week, and half of them wont post if they don’t like how they look.


Young vogue model. Wade,L (2011).

Its considered normal in today’s society to see seductive images on the TV of girls in ads or music videos wearing next to nothing, lyrics to popular music contain a number of coarse and derogatory references to sex and women in particular and young girls sing along with out a second thought.These music videos and ads set girls unhealthy and unrealistic beauty standards. A company


Body image. MomsXYZ (n.d.).

named Mattel have introduced a more diverse Barbie doll with a varied range of hair,face and body which should help promote healthy self images.The selfie has become so widespread that taking far to many of them can be recognized as a mental illness states Aldridge, G and Harden, K (2014). The story of Danny Bowman  is an example of how trying to find approval and validation through selfies on social media can go horribly wrong.


Victoria’s Secret models.Brown, S,G (2014).


We live in an ever changing,evolving digital world and its no secret that the media plays an increasing influential role in shaping our definition of beauty, from the time a girl is a toddler,before she is even aware of what she is seeing on TV isn’t real she is bombarded with media and other cultural messages that undermine a healthy and resilient self image.Women are made to appear taller and thinner and visual effects are used to remove lines and blemishes Kids aren’t going to stop watching TV so its important as their parents/adults to teach them to question and decode the messages being communicated so they become savvy media consumers and are aware of harmful representations and misrepresentations while still having fun.We need to instill a healthy sense of true self esteem in our girls offline before they post their first selfie or status update.


Alloway, P, T. (2014). Selfies, Facebook and narcissism: what’s the link? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/keep-it-in-mind/201405/selfies-facebook-and-narcissism-whats-the-link

Barakat, C. (2014). Science links selfies to narcissism, addiction and low self esteem. Retrieved from  http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/selfies-narcissism-addiction-low-self-esteem/147769

Brown, S, G. (2014). Victoria’s Secret “Perfect body” campaign draws social media outrage. Retrieved from  http://denverdigital.agency/health-2/victorias-secret-perfect-body-campaign-draws-social-media-outrage/

Firestone, L. (2012). Is social media o blame for the rise in narcissism? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/compassion-matters/201211/is-social-media-blame-the-rise-in-narcissism

Freeth, B. (2014). She’s a cheeky one! Ariana gives a raunchy performance in sheer skirt and over the knee socks at Bambi awards. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-2833844/Ariana-Grande-gives-raunchy-performance-sheer-skirt-Bambi-Awards.html

Garey, J. (n.d.). Raising girls with healthy self esteem. Retrieved from http://childmind.org/article/raising-girls-with-healthy-self-esteem/

Jager, C. (2016). Yes, taking lots of selfies does make you a narcissist. Retrieved from http://www.lifehacker.com.au/2016/02/do-your-selfies-make-you-a-narcissist-infographic/

MomsXYZ. (n.d.). Let’s raise our girls to have a positive body image. Retrieved from http://www.momsxyz.com/girls-and-body-image/

Newsbeat. (2015). Little mix pull out of their radio 1 live lounge performance through illness. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/35026270/little-mix-pull-out-of-their-radio-1-live-lounge-performance-through-illness

Perron, A. (2015). Selfies, social media and self esteem: Dove launches new confidence campaigns. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/beauty/selfies-social-media-and-self-esteem-dove-165156342.html

Perry, T. (2016). Why you should totally participate in “no selfies day”. Retrieved from http://www.teenvogue.com/story/no-selfie-day-self-esteem

Sanders, L, E. (n.d.). The influence of media marketing on adolescent girls. Retrieved from https://www.kon.org/urc/v8/sanders.html

Wade, L. (2011). Adultification and sexualization of girls in French vogue. Retrieved from https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2011/01/08/adultification-and-sexualization-of-girls-in-french-vogue/

Lights, camera, action!


Action films. What about them seems to suck in an audience so easily? What even makes an action film different from any other? How is action footage shot differently to the likes of a Rom-Com and most importantly what even is Action as a genre? If you were interested in having some of  these questions answered – look no further. Below is basically your very own intro to…
action 2.jpg
Image Source

Action films are ones that contain continuous motion and action, such as car chases,fighting, and physical stunts. The action takes priority in the story telling. Typically, an action film revolves around the main character (hero) having a goal and having to face incredible odds to obtain it.

Everyone needs excitement and action films do a marvelous job at providing the thrills some people seek from watching this particular genre. Almost everything that happens in an action movie is unlikely to happen in everyone’s own day to day lives therefore they provide people with a simple and effective out allowing the experience of a heightened state with no real risk to the viewer. Thriving off the excitement that action films provide they also give the viewer a sense of “what would I do if put in that situation” which then makes it all seem a bit more real.

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Now if you’ve ever watched a an Action movie before (which I’m sure you have) you would have noticed that there is quite a few different styles also known as sub genres. You’ve got everything from Action-Comedy to Action-Horror and there are so many movies that have more than one sub genre a great example being The Avengers; Lets start off that they are first and foremost an Action based film but there are also a few sub genres they seem to fit in. From simply looking at the poster below I can say that they easily fit into Righting the Wronged, Action-Comedy, Superhero, Vigilantes, Protecting the Innocent  and from those sub genres they can split off again into War, Chase movie, Kidnapping, Race Against Time and so on. It’s easy for movies to continuously split into more and more sub genres because in certain genres one action must happen which leads to another which leads to a sub genre. A simple example of this being every Superhero movie has to have a bad guy and that bad guy usually poses a threat to innocent bystanders the Superhero has to Protect the Innocent bystanders and when the bad guy does something wrong to the bystanders it usually ends in a Chase etc.

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Action films don’t often get the recognition that they deserve when it comes down to the actual skill of making one. Action is often viewed as a film you watch when you don’t really wan to think you just want to see things blown up and people punched. However when you really look into things the lighting, camera and sound conventions that filmmaker form a fairly lengthy list not to mention the Mise-en-scéne of the genre. Mise-en-scéne is french for “placing on stage”. It’s a theatrical expression of the way everything appears and is arranged in a frame. This includes everything that the audience can see on the screen, such as the setting, the lighting, the actors, their performances, costumes, makeup and props. These widely influence the Mise-en-scéne making up a genre itself, meaning that when dramatic and hectic it would create the action feel.
Ed Sikov’s Film Studies: An Introduction (2010) defined mise-en-scéne as “the expressive totality of what you see in a single film image”. Mise-en-scéne is literally everything that is shot by the camera, therefore editing anything in or out of a scene wouldn’t be part of it.

Below we have listed the general lighting, camera shots and sound used most often in Action films.

Preprodution: look east (morning), look south (mid day), look west (later in the day)
Accent lighting5-EasyDay-BGAccents-web
Location & props

Shakey Cam
Slow motion
Zooming in
Tracking shots
Split Screens
Quick cuts
Lens flares
Still shots
Crane shots

Intense guitar
Aggressive and rhythmic mystery music
Energetic electronic tracks with stable beat and synthetic sound effects

In conclusion Action movies contain continuous motion and action, which we watch to give us a thrill for a source of entertainment; This is accomplished by using a variety of lighting, sound and camera techniques. Action is the cause of many other sub-genres that we all know and love to watch when in need of a distraction.

Done by Brittany Grey, Josephine Opie,Lisa Turner, Sara Al Harrasi, Urjowan Al-farsi and Angie Cebic


Information Sources

Paragraphs 2 and 3: BOOM

Blanko00. (2008). Yahoo answers. Retrieved from https://nz.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081029052101AAMVgA8

Tsl. (n.d.). genre action. Retrieved from http://thescriptlab.com/screenplay/genre/action#

Media fandoms, the tip of the iceberg

From smilers , katycats, and tributes to pottheads,trekkies and twihards; these are just a small number of fandoms that exist around the world.

So what is a fandom?


Pottheads.The blade, (2011).


Crying Beleibers. Booth, (2011).

Wikipedia, (2016) describes a fandom as a subculture made up of fans characterized by a feeling of empathy and camaraderie with others who share a common interest. Hang, (2012) speaks about fandoms as a diehard group of people that understand and feel the same way others do within their group.These fandoms are generated by fans themselves, who are vocal and participate. Fandoms revolve around different media platforms like film/TV, music, gaming  and social media as well as literature (novels) and graphic novels.

Fandom history


Amazing stories. Wikipedia, (2016).

Screaming and crying girls clutching One Direction posters didn’t


Science wonder stories. Wikipedia, (2016).

invent fandom, in fact media fandom goes as far back as the late 1920s as science fiction fandoms in the letter of columns of science fiction magazines such as amazing stories and science wonder stories. It was here that science fiction and fantasy fans were able to interact with each other for the first time. Fast forward to the 60s and science fiction fandom is still slowly making its way along producing fanzines and organizing conventions, however in the year 1966 a show named Star Trek was introduced which changed the face of fandom forever.


Star Trek. Wadhwa, (2014).

Up to this point the fandom had been organized around general interests and related to speculative fiction, of course Star Trek was already of interest to the established science fiction fandom but it began to attract a new type of fan; unschooled in science fiction and dominantly female, these fans were more interested in the interpersonal relationships, politics and philosophical questions facing the characters.Various other fandoms were created through out the years to follow, revolving around TV and films such as Starsky and Hutch and Star Wars. Of course the biggest impact made on  fandoms was the internet, pre internet fandoms faced the problems of finding other fans to create community with. It was through the internet that fans could sign up to mailing lists through sites such as fanfiction.net and LiveJournal

Is being a part of a fandom good or bad?

Sloat, (2015)  wrote a blog and stated three reasons why being a fan is good for you, she states that fans have a sense of belonging, fans are happier and fans are better critical thinkers. Click here to read further about these points she has made.


Fan tattoo.Styles, (2013).


#cutforbieber.Doris dosage blog, (2013).

There can also be some negative aspects to fandom, like when this near obsession with a topic can be pushed to far, this can result in an unhealthy or unrealistic life style or violence which can result in injury or death.For example the fandom Beleibers (Justin Bieber fans) decided to begin cutting themselves when they saw a picture of the pop star smoking marajuna, they did this in a silly attempt to get him to stop, fans would cut themselves and take pictures or videos with the hashtag #cutforbieber.Another example is fans getting tattoos of their favorite movies or characters, granted there is no real injury or death from doing this but tattoos are something that should be thought about before going through with it, of course if you really have thought about it and listened to other peoples opinions and still want that Twilight tattoo then by all means get it (no judgement here). Most teenagers try find someone to idolize or model themselves after and sometimes they can fall into an unhealthy obsession due to their impressionable age.

Devoted fans

Hit these links to look at some of the most devoted fans

harry potter fan

twilight fans

marvel fan

star wars fans

one direction fans


Fandoms have no doubt evolved since the 60s but their purpose remains the same; to create a sense of community, to open the door to many different people based solely on interests, they allow fans the feeling of acceptance and affirmation. Expression and passion are embraced through fandoms thus promoting a deeper engagement in the interest.This is all just the tip of the ice berg really as all fandoms have their own unique back ground, if you would like to read further on fandoms then hit some of these links!

boldly writing by Joan Marie Verba

fan fiction and fan communities in the age of the internet edited by Karen Hellekson and Kristina Busse

the making of the star trek conventions by Joan Winston


Booth, J (2011). Crying beleibers that will make you giggle. Retrieved from http://www.gurl.com/2011/10/27/pics-crying-beliebers-giggle/#1

Doris Dosage blog (2013). Cut for Bieber! Teenagers cut themselves to protest Justin Bieber smoking weed. [web log post] Retrieved from http://www.dorisdosage.com/2013/01/cut-for-bieber-teenagers-cut-themselves.html cut for beiber

Hang, B (2012). Media fandom. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/b9kb2w0pppyv/media-fandom/

Howell, D (2014). When fandoms turn into unhealthy obsessions. Retrieved from http://themycenaean.org/2014/04/when-fandoms-turn-into-unhealthy-obsessions/

Kelly, M (2014). The positives and negatives to fandoms.[web log post] Retrieved from http://cscl1001floor3.blogspot.co.nz/2014/05/the-positives-and-negatives-to-fandoms.html

Lady business (2014). A history of western media fandom. Retrieved from https://ladybusiness.dreamwidth.org/66968.html

Sloat, S (2015). Science explains…why being a fan is good for you. Retrieved from https://www.inverse.com/article/7120-science-explains-why-being-a-fan-is-good-for-you

Styles, R (2013). The women with an R-Tatz obsession. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2442357/Supermarket-worker-52-tattoos-Robert-Pattinson-drawn-body.html

The blade (2011). Thousands of Harry Potter fans in London’s Trafalgar Square for premiere of final film. Retrieved from http://www.toledoblade.com/Movies/2011/07/07/Thousands-of-Harry-Potter-fans-in-London-s-Trafalgar-Square-for-premiere-of-final-film.html

Wadhwa, V (2014). Star Trek may be here sooner than we think. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140702040507-8451-star-trek-may-be-here-sooner-than-we-think

Wikipedia contributors (2016). Amazing stories. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazing_Stories

Wikipedia contributors (2016). Wonder stories. Retrieved from  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wonder_Stories

Reality TV; The fascination behind it.


Crazy Megan Mckenna. Hewett,(2016).

At the beginning of starting this blog I wanted to look at if the media glorifies bad behavior, I found an interesting blog by syorkMC where the topic is just that.After reading this blog i decided to change course a bit and instead find some answers to some other questions that came to mind. The blogger states that we are “drawn to this bad behavior” so who exactly is we and why are we drawn to it? I did a little research and McDermott (2011) states that most reality TV shows are popular among viewers age 18 -34, there is also a lot of reality shows that appeal to people as they have certain interactive  viewing aspects to them for example the reality show big brother you can call or text your vote for your favorite or least favorite housemate, S, Shyam Sun


Geordie shore cast, season 2. MTV.com, (n.d.).

a co director of media effects says shows like this are more seductive than other types as it seems more real and much less orchestrated. An interesting word I came across whilst researching is the word voyeur or voyeuristic.  It is a word for a peeping tom, someone who likes to watch people engage in private activities.Turkish psychologist Lemi Brauh says that some people can have voyeuristic tendencies in which they enjoy any chance to see what they cannot otherwise see, “the curtains are left slightly open”.


"It's a show about people watching people watching people watching people."

Anastasia Harrell posts an interesting blog on Psychology Today about some more reasons people are drawn to reality TV.She talks about how it can stem from peoples desires to fantasize about the prospect of easily acquired fame.There is also the theory that reality TV can make us feel better about ourselves yes we may not be as rich with money or possessions as those on TV but watching these shows can actually make us feel thankful for our simple, mostly drama-less lives.Since reality TV dominates our screens and we are exposed to these characters so much they become in a sense our friends, not in the traditional sense of course but Anastasia Harrell says that our classification of friendship has changed radically over the past ten years, where you can now check their face books and Instagram and keep up with whats going on in their lives without having to actually dial their number.We can so easily be connected with out ever having to actually connect. Reality TV is formatted in such a way as to re create the detached connection we have with some of our friends, this can explain the fascination with and attachment to reality stars.

Courtni Berghoefer wrote an interesting blog about why we are drawn to celebrity melt downs and speaks about 3 ways to tap into the ugly side of human psychology. Lemi Baruh conducted a study with 550 respondents and tested them on their voyeurism traits, click here to see the results.


Kardashians, Kaufman, (2015).

It does seem as though we have fallen into the pattern of watching extremely privileged and often very snobbish people live their lives,seems that the reason for watching theses mundane shows is the enjoyment we get from watching others behave badly. “We usually cant control it either and we’re hard wired to be self righteous social climbers” (Berghoefer,2013). We enjoy having a sneak peek into peoples private lives and seeing sides of people we wouldn’t normally see. Susan Krauss Whitbourne says if our intake of reality TV is on the higher side, we should consider other uses of our desires to learn more about peoples secrets, problems and joys by turning our interest in people to ways that we can offer help, through charity work for example.There is  a lot of real life drama to engage our lives and emotions and by channeling our interests we can benefit the chances of others as well as our own to gain fulfillment.

Berghoefer,C. (2013). Why we love celebrity meltdowns (and why marketers should care). Retrieved from http://www.copypress.com/blog/why-we-love-celebrity-meltdowns-and-why-marketers-should-care/

Cartoonstock, (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/p/people_watching.asp

Harrell,A. (2014). Reality television;behind the obsession. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-view-venus/201411/reality-television-behind-the-obsession

Hewett, E. (2016). Who is Megan Mckenna? Everything you need toi know about the 2016 celebrity big brother housemate [web log post] Retrieved from http://metro.co.uk/2016/01/05/who-is-megan-mckenna-everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-celebrity-big-brother-2016-housemate-5600573/

Kaufman. A. (2015). People should give the kardashians-or at least Khloe- a break [web log post] Retrieved from http://zap2it.com/2015/10/khloe-kardashian-lamar-odom-defense/

Krauss,W,S. (2013). Who watched reality shows and why? Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/fulfillment-any-age/201305/who-watches-reality-shows-and-why

McDermott,N.(2012). Why we’re obsessed with reality TV. Retrieved from http://greatist.com/happiness/why-were-obsessed-reality-tv

MTV.com. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mtv.com.au/geordie-shore/pictures/photos-geordie-shore-season-2-cast

SyorkMC,(2014). Does the media glorify inappropriate behavior? [web log post] Retrieved from https://storify.com/seyork/does-the-media-glorify-inappropriate-behavior


Sub culture, good or bad?

Introduction to Subculture

According to Merriam Webster, sub-culture is:

“A group that has beliefs and behaviours that are different from the main groups within a culture and society.”

Subculture is basically another way of saying that you don’t fit in with most of the people around you; so should they be considered as misfits?
There’s a vast range of subculture varying from Amish, bikers, emos, fandom, nudists, skinheads, vampire culture, and so on. Subcultures can be identified through their distinct characteristics and alien lifestyle. The one sub-culture that we have developed an interest in is delinquent subculture (a.k.a. gangs).

Delinquent Subculture

Delinquent itself can be defined as a young person that tends to commit crime.  A delinquent subculture is a system of values/interests that support criminal behaviour. Gangs started with people who had a common reason to not fitting in to a society’s norm.


There are a number of different ways to categorize a gang. For example, by their level of organization (loosely organized street gangs to highly organized crime units), or by location (on the streets or in prison or different suburbs), or by ethnicity.

Sometimes gangs are categorized by the types of crimes they commit, most commonly made difference is between street gangs and drug gangs. The table below illustrates the differences between the two gangs.

Screen Shot 2016-03-16 at 13.59.49
“Into The Abyss: Kinds And Names Of Gangs”. People.missouristate.edu. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.

We wanted to talk about the different kinds of gangs and compare them to one another, but it was quite difficult. So we’ve decided focus on one particular gang type, which is the Mexican Mafia.


The Mexican Mafia

The Mexican Mafia is a highly organized crime unit of Mexican Americans in the U.S., which can also be known as “La Eme” (“The M”). La Eme was first formed in 1957 by a man named Luis “Huero Buff” Flores along with 13 other Hispanic street gang members. Flores was imprisoned at the Duel Vocational Institution (DVI), which was a prison in Tracy, California. La Eme was originally formed to protect Hispanics from other gangs within the California prison systems.

By 1961, the violence in the prison had become so bad that some inmates were transferred to other prisons by the California Department of Corrections in the hopes of discouraging or breaking up the their violent behaviour at DVI. Instead it spread their influence to other prisons.

In the 1980s, La Eme took their organization to the streets, where they then began to control drug trafficking, extortion (obtaining something through force or threats), contract killings and debt collection from inside prison walls.

The reason why we chose to focus on the Mexican Mafia was because they’re seen as a highly organized crime unit, and it shows you that not all subcultures are positive or good. Also, the Mexican Mafia started off as a prison gang, then ended up expanding and became a street gang as well.

Misfits or nah?

The Oxford Dictionary states that a misfit-

“is a person whose behaviour or attitude sets them apart from others in an uncomfortably conspicuous way.”

At the start of our research we thought that gangs could be considered as misfits. The deeper we searched for similarities and differences, we realised that although they share similarities they are two different things.

We think misfits share the fact that they don’t fit anywhere and so they join together as misfits. Whereas, gangs share a similar background in terms of lifestyle, childhood, etc.


This is an example of a Mexican Mafia member named “Raul Leon” that was interviewed a few years ago behind the bars. It’s a simple case study relating to our research.


By Angie & Sara.